Educating Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

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This bibliography is one of several available from NICHCY on the subject of educating students with disabilities. See also: Educating Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); and Educating Students with Learning Disabilities. NICHCY also offers a News Digest called Interventions for Students with Learning Disabilities that teachers may find helpful.

Educating children and youth who have emotional or behavioral disorders can be an area of special challenge for general and special educators alike. Identifying and understanding the special learning needs of a student who has such a disorder plays a critical part in designing an appropriate educational program for that student and in providing needed emotional and behavioral supports. Information on the many instructional practices and accommodations that have proven effective with students with emotional disturbances or behavioral disorders (ED/BD) can also help educators maximize these students' academic, social, and behavioral success.

Fortunately for educators and students alike, there are many valuable resources available on the education of children and youth with ED/BD in both general and special education settings. We have listed and described a good number of these resources in this bibliography. While most do not focus exclusively on how to address the special needs of these students within a general education classroom, they do provide guidance regarding the nature of emotional and behavioral disturbances; how to set up a classroom environment that is conducive to order and student learning; and how to observe, gain an understanding of, and influence student behavior to the benefit of all those in the classroom. As such, these resources will be useful to general educators involved in including students with ED/BD. Having several of these resources in a departmental, professional, or school library would offer teachers and administrators a ready source of information about emotional and behavioral disorders.

We have emphasized resources that are written primarily for teachers, for these tend to be written with a teacher's daily classroom reality in mind, as well as their need for practical, as opposed to heavily theoretical, information. While not exhaustive of the materials available, this bibliography can serve as a starting point for all those seeking answers, approaches, techniques, and understanding of the complex issues associated with educating children and youth with emotional or behavioral disorders.

Editor's Notes

ERIC Documents: Some of the documents listed in this bibliography are available through the ERIC system. These documents are identifiable by the "ED" number that follows their citation--for example, ED 372 573.

If you have access to a university or library that has the ERIC collection on microfiche, you may be able to read and photocopy the document there. If not, contact: ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), 7420 Fullerton Road, Suite 110, Springfield, VA 22153-2852. Telephone: 1-800-443-3742; (703) 440-1400.Web: Give EDRS the "ED" number; for a nominal fee, you will receive a copy of the document on microfiche or paper.

Print Resources

Bacon, E.H., & Bloom, L.A. (1994, Spring). "Don't ratl the kids." Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Problems, 3(1), 8-10.

Seventy-four students with behavioral disorders (BD) were interviewed to determine their perceptions of what skills general and BD teachers need. Students requested that teachers learn to be fair and respect students and to be sensitive to students' feelings and develop counseling skills. Other themes dealt with personal qualities, instructional skills, behavior management, crisis management, and background knowledge. (ERIC: NB)

Boreson, L. (1994, April). A programming guide for emotional disturbance (Bulletin No. 94324). Madison, WI: Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 374 581)

This guide defines the state-of-the-art in Wisconsin's programming for students with emotional disturbance (ED). The guide begins with an overview of the ED assessment process, including screening, referral, multidisciplinary teams, eligibility criteria, and IEPs. A chapter on setting up service programs discusses facilities, scheduling, selecting materials, adapting and modifying materials and instruction, student records and confidentiality, communication, working with special education program aides, and stress management. Behavior management information and guidelines for affective education are presented.

A section on academic instruction outlines teaching strategies, use of time, strategies for grouping students, grades, supporting students in the general education environment, and career and vocational education/transition. A final chapter of miscellaneous items covers homebound students, disciplinary expulsion, and inclusion. Appendix A provides tips for teachers on dealing with 13 frequently encountered situations. (ERIC: JDD)

Burrello, L.C., & Wright, P.T. (Eds.). (1993, Winter). Strategies for inclusion of behaviorally challenging students. Bloomington, IN: Council of Administrators of Special Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 358 654)

This article describes a pilot project at an elementary school, which uses a cooperative teaching approach to integrate all special education and at-risk students, including students with behavioral problems, into general education settings. Key program components include teaming, collaboration, cooperative learning, joint ownership for student integration, effective teaching practices, and development of teacher skills in adapting and modifying the curriculum to meet student needs. (ERIC: DB)

Cambone, J. (1994). Teaching troubled children: A case study in effective classroom practice. New York: Teachers College Press. (ISBN #0807733032, paper)

This book addresses the question of whether we are really willing to educate all of our children, as opposed to isolating those students who are different or at risk, simplifying their curriculum, and lowering our expectations for their academic success. As its case in point, the book describes in detail one teacher, named Anne, and one educational institution who, together, seek a different way of educating even the most troubled children. The author, through videotaped observations of Anne's class and indepth interviews with her, reconstructs how Anne diagnoses and evaluates what is happening with each of the children in her classroom. The author explains how this evaluation leads to the curriculum and instructional strategies Anne then uses and the development of a "learning community" that is responsive to the needs and strengths of the children and what is needed for them to succeed as students. The author emphasizes the importance of learning "to think like a teacher" and uses Anne and her school as evidence that fine teaching can take place within the context of institutional support. The author rejects the behaviorist approach (e.g., control and management of behavior) that is so often used when teaching troubled students.

Canter, L., & Canter, M. (1993). Succeeding with difficult students [text and workbook]. Santa Monica, CA: Lee Canter and Associates. (Product #Q7634)

This resource (consisting of separate text and workbook) offers K-12 teachers a step-by-step approach for monitoring and correcting students who pose classroom problems. This tool includes checklists, guidelines, inventories, strategies, planning worksheets, and more to help teachers (a) identify why specific students misbehave and (b) develop customized behavior modification plans. This resource is intended to help teachers learn to build positive relationships, identify needs, set goals, foresee when problems will occur, gather support, and teach and reinforce appropriate behavior through a variety of effective strategies.

Carter, S. (1994, November). Interventions: Organizing systems to support competent social behavior in children and youth. Eugene, OR: Western Regional Resource Center. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 380 971)

This guide describes classroom and school interventions intended to meet the needs of students with ED/BD and those at risk for developing these disabilities. The first section presents "classroom interventions," a compilation of 77 interventions which may be used in regular or self-contained classrooms. A brief description and sources of further information are given for each intervention.

Among the interventions described are: acceptance, active listening, aerobic exercise, anger management, art therapy, assertiveness training, behavior contracts, bibliotherapy, chaining, "Circle of Friends," classroom discipline plans, cooperative learning strategies, differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors, direct instruction, discipline with dignity, early childhood interventions, functional analysis, home notes, mentoring, play therapy, prereferral intervention, reality therapy, relaxation therapy, self-control curriculum, self-monitoring, social skills training, stress management, time out, and values clarification. Two extensive appendices provide additional information on implementing interventions, including record-keeping forms, examples, and guidelines. (418+ pages) (ERIC)

Cartledge, G., & Cochran, L. (1993, Spring). Developing cooperative learning behaviors in students with behavior disorders. Preventing School Failure, 37(3), 5-10.

This article explains how cooperative learning behaviors can be taught systematically and directly to students with behavioral disorders using a four-step procedure in conjunction with an enhanced cooperative learning environment to encourage generalization. Application with five primary grade students is reported. (ERIC: DB)

Chazan, M., Laing, A.F., & Davies, D. (1994). Emotional and behavioural difficulties in middle childhood: Identification, assessment, and intervention in school. London, England: Falmer Press. (ISBN # 0750703474)

This resource book focuses upon the emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBDs) that many children experience in middle childhood, which is defined roughly as the period between 7 and 11 years. The nature of these disorders is described and includes "externalized" behaviors (aggressiveness, disruptiveness, bullying) and/or "internalized" behaviors (timidity, inhibition, withdrawal). The book highlights the main findings of studies related to identifying, assessing, and treating these behavioral difficulties within the context of school. Published in England, the book looks primarily at the British educational context, although reference is made to the U.S. context as well.

Sections of the book address discovering and understanding EBDs in middle childhood, helping children with EBDs (how schools can help, how teachers can help, how parents and others can help), educating such children (integration into general education classrooms is specifically discussed), and specific behavioral difficulties (disruptive pupils; bullies and victims; and withdrawal, anxiety, and depression). While this book does not provide the detailed guidance that many classroom teachers need to work with students who have ED/BD, it does provide a substantial overview of these disorders and numerous case study examples.

Dice, M.L. (1993). Intervention strategies for children with emotional or behavioral disorders. San Diego, CA: Singular.

This methods textbook is primarily for prospective teachers of children who have emotional or behavioral disorders and describes interventions that beginning teachers need to understand to address the challenges of working with these students. Beginning chapters provide information on emotional and behavior disorders; the IEP and the major service delivery options available to students; how to design an assessment-based curriculum; and seven conceptual models that influence intervention. Subsequent chapters address: classroom management, interpersonal skills interventions, behavioral interventions, and cognitive-learning interventions. The book concludes with chapters on how to integrate interventions and on crisis management.

Dunlap, G., dePerczel, M., Clarke, S., Wilson, D., Wright, S., White, R., & Gomez, A. (1994). "Choice making and proactive behavioral support for students with emotional and behavioral challenges." Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 27, 505-518.

This article reports on a study that extended behavior management techniques used with three students who had behavior problems to include choice making as part of the intervention. Results indicated that choice making -- in this case, being able to choose between a variety of academic activities in English and spelling -- served to heighten student engagement in the task selected and to reduce students' disruptive behavior. While the article presents detailed information about the study in classic researcher style, the study's implications are useful to those designing interventions for students with BD. Choice making, according to the authors, provides a contrast to the high degree of external control that is traditionally maintained in classrooms where students exhibit problem behavior, and it promotes student initiative and individualized curricular interventions for reducing behavior problems.

Epanchin, B.C., Townsend, B., & Stoddard, K. (1994). Constructive classroom management: Strategies for creating positive learning environments. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. (ISBN #0534222544)

This book presents approaches to classroom management, which are intended to instill a joy for learning in students, as opposed to merely controlling their behavior. The first chapter addresses the limitations of traditional approaches to behavior management and how school reform can play a role in addressing the needs of learners and society. Chapter 2 discusses the research on positive, productive school climates and gives three examples of such schools. Chapter 3 presents the importance of family-school partnerships in our increasingly diverse society. The next chapter discusses how to structure the classroom to promote success (e.g., space, scheduling, tempo and pacing, keeping students engaged in learning). Chapter 5 outlines how teachers can promote positive behaviors in their students, while the subsequent chapter discusses how to reduce undesirable behaviors. Promoting social skills is the focus of Chapter 7, and involving the group is discussed in Chapter 8 (how to group students, types of teacher-facilitated/ student-led work groups). Assessing the needs and behavior of children is then examined, including the referral process and common assessment tools.

Chapter 10 discusses the importance of -- and techniques for -- establishing student-teacher dialogue that leads to understanding and connection. Chapter 11 takes a hard look at crisis management. The final chapter discusses the balancing act that teachers face between helping self and helping others and gives suggestions to help teachers maintain their own sense of balance and health.

Foster-Johnson, L., & Dunlap, G. (1993, Spring). "Using functional assessment to develop effective, individualized interventions for challenging behaviors." TEACHING Exceptional Children, 25(3), 44-50.

This article describes a process called functional assessment that educators can use to gain an improved understanding of a student's challenging behaviors and establish a basis for individualized behavior management programming. As part of functional assessment, the teacher gathers information about the student's behaviors and the classroom environment and then forms hypothesis statements about the purpose of the behavior and the way the behavior is associated with other events in the environment.

The article presents two key assumptions about the relationships between challenging behavior and a student's environment, then provides a definition of functional assessment and a step-by-step overview of how a teacher might collect information about the challenging behavior and develop hypothesis statements. The article concludes with a discussion and a chart of examples of how this information can be used to develop an effective intervention.

Henley, M., Ramsey, R.S., & Algozzine, R. (1993). Characteristics of and strategies for teaching students with mild disabilities. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

This book is written for undergraduate and graduate students who are being trained to teach students with behavior disorders, mild mental retardation, and learning disabilities. Because most of these students spend the major part of their day in general education classrooms, this book should be helpful to general education teachers as well. Part I provides an overview of special education (history, eligible disabilities, the IEP process, placement options) and of students with mild disabilities. More detailed information on the characteristics of these students (i.e., those with mild mental retardation, behavior disorders, or learning disabilities) is given in Part II. Mainstreaming is also discussed, as are learning and teaching (time variables; curriculum-based assessment; instructional models such as direct instruction, precision teaching, student-centered learning, learning strategies, and integrated teaching; learning styles; teacher communication skills; and testing and grading systems). Chapters on managing the classroom and building partnerships with families conclude this part. (416 pages) (Editor's note: A second edition of this book is planned for release in January 1996.)

Jordan, D. (1995). Honorable intentions: A parent's guide to educational planning for children with emotional and behavioral disorders. Minneapolis, MN: PACER.

This book is intended to help parents participate fully in the process of planning their child's education, including the interventions that may be proposed to address the child's difficult behavior or emotional disorder. The book begins with an overview of special education and related services and the evaluation process by which a student is identified as needing special services. A checklist of questions and concerns -- and an accompanying discussion of each -- is provided to guide parents through the evaluation process. Development of the IEP is addressed in detail, with specific questions listed to help parents consider the many aspects of planning their child's educational program.

The importance of knowing school policies and rules in regards to behavior and considering how these may affect the student in question are the subjects of one chapter. This chapter addresses behavior management plans, classroom management, common discipline practices, suspensions, expulsions, the U.S. Gun-Free Schools Act, and issues associated with considering a change of placement for the student based upon his or her behaviors.

Day treatment and residential placement are then briefly discussed, and parents are provided with a checklist of questions to consider to ensure that, if their child is placed in either type of program, he or she continues to receive an appropriate education.

Final chapters are devoted to examining: adaptations and modifications that can be made for students who have emotional or behavior disorders, communicating with the school, evaluating the IEP plan, and resolving differences. (159 pages)

Karlin, M.S., & Berger, R. (1992). Discipline and the disruptive child: A new, expanded practical guide for elementary school teachers (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Parker. (ISBN #0132196433)

This book presents methods and techniques that elementary school teachers can use to address discipline problems in the classroom. Chapter 1 discusses how teachers can establish effective rules and routines, explaining their expectations and making their teaching exciting and interesting. Chapter 2 describes the general types of problems underlying disruptive behavior: physical problems, mental problems, psychological problems, problems of the generation gap, home-oriented problems, and school-oriented problems. Chapter 3 addresses methods of working with young students with problems and for developing rapport, treating children fairly, building a success pattern for each child, determining the child's basic problem, and listening carefully. Chapter 4 gives guidance on securing the cooperation of parents.

Chapters 5-16 are devoted to the major types of troublesome children, how to understand them, cope with them in the classroom, and shape their behavior so that teaching and learning can take place. Some of the types include students with learning problems, hyperactivity, physical disability, or a serious emotional disturbance; students who tend to fight, who are underachievers or nonmotivated, or who are afraid of school; and those who are abused or who come from families disrupted by divorce or death.

The final chapter presents a self-analysis questionnaire to help teachers look objectively at themselves and the steps they have taken in working with the disruptive child (or children) in the class. (268 pages)

Levine, M. (1994). Educational care: A system for understanding and helping children with learning problems at home and in school. Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service.

This book presents a phenomenological model based on clinical, educational, and research experience; the model favors "informed observation and description over labeling." The book seeks to help readers understand "the great heterogenity of children with disappointing school performance" (p. 2), and describes 26 common, observable phenomena, grouping them according to particular educational themes. The themes are: weak attention controls, reduced remembering, chronic misunderstanding, deficient output, delayed skill acquisition, and poor adaptation. Within each description, the effects of children's strengths are also considered, and suggestions are given to help parents and teachers collaborate in managing these students. This model represents a different way of looking at children's needs and disability and is intended "to influence the way in which adults think about children struggling with difficult personal profiles of strength and weakness that they did not select" (p. 9).

Mason, S.A., & Egel, A.L. (1995, Fall). What does Amy like? Using a mini-reinforcer assessment to increase student participation in instructional activities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 28(1), 42-45.

This article presents strategies teachers can use to develop a pool of potential sensory reinforcers for behavior problems in students with learning disabilities, behavior disorders, mild or moderate mental retardation, or language delays. It also provides a step-by-step method for conducting ongoing reinforcer assessment, and suggests how the procedure can be modified for specific situations. (ERIC: DB)

Masters, L.F., Mori, B.A., & Mori, A.A. (1993). Teaching secondary students with mild learning and behavior problems: Methods, materials, strategies (2nd ed). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. (Product No. 2073)

This text serves as a reference book of practical and proven ideas for providing learning experiences suited to the background, age, intellectual capabilities, behaviors, and personality of each student with mild learning and behavior problems. This includes students who have learning disabilities, ADHD, behavioral disorders, conduct disorders, mild mental retardation, or traumatic brain injury. Guidance is given regarding: assessment and evaluation of student progress; educational service delivery models; specific instructional methods, techniques, and materials for remedial, compensatory, tutorial, and strategies- oriented programs; vocational and transition training; social skills training; and computer and technology applications in the classroom. The book concludes with listings of commercially available curricular and instructional materials. (374 pages)

Mendler, A. (1994, Fall). Behavior management in the inclusive classroom. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Problems, 3(3), 59-60.

This article is one of many on inclusion in this issue of the journal, the entirety of which is devoted to the theme, "Inclusion of Troubled Children." The article specifically discusses several practical techniques that educators can employ to help make the inclusion of children with severe emotional and behavioral problems in general education classrooms a more positive experience for such children, the children's classmates, and the classroom teacher. Strategies include helping students to feel competent, have a sense of belonging, have a sense of power and autonomy, practice virtue and generosity, and experience fun and stimulation. (ERIC: MDM)

Morgan, S.R., & Reinhart, J.A. (1991). Interventions for students with emotional disorders. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. (Product No. 1592)

This resource is intended as a "how to" methods book for teachers of children who have emotional disorders. The authors purposefully provide only minimal discussion of the causes and theory behind the behavior of such children; they choose instead to focus the discussion primarily upon how to set up a classroom from day one and carry through with the interventions described on a daily basis. Chapter 2 presents the philosophical basis of the book, which is that love and empathy need to be the basic foundation of all classroom activity. The concept of teacher empathy as a fundamental element of the teaching process is discussed in Chapter 3, and a model of teacher empathy is presented with concrete examples to illustrate how the teacher's empathy can provide the teacher with insight into the problems of the students and, thus, assist them in developing their own insight.

Subsequent chapters address: organizing the environment to prepare students for learning; managing instruction in specific subjects (reading/writing, mathematics, science and social studies); responses to feelings and emotional well-being (specific instructions are given for such techniques as relaxation training, guided fantasy, interactive communication, roleplaying, storytelling, and the life space interview); and the interpersonal qualities of teachers who work empathetically with students who have emotional disorders. (212 pages)

Newcomer, P.L. (1993). Understanding and teaching emotionally disturbed children and adolescents (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. (Product No. 6575)

This book is designed to help general and special educators understand their roles in identifying and assisting students with emotional or behavior disorders. The book shows how diverse theoretical perspectives translate into classroom practice and explores the different forms of therapy and types of intervention currently used with ED/BD students.

First, an overview of emotional disturbance is given, followed by a chapter that describes the various theoretical models of emotional disturbance. A chapter is then devoted to examining the types of emotional problems that children and adolescents may have. This is followed by an overview of the identification process and of the types of services that may be provided to address the needs of these children.

The remainder of the book examines the various therapies and interventions to consider when students have emotional or behavioral problems. The therapies, which are discussed in separate chapters, include: behavioral therapy; cognitive therapy; educational therapy; phenomenological and existential therapies; ecological/milieu therapy; group therapy; play therapy; drama therapy; art, music, and dance therapy; and an overview of alternative therapies.

Owen, I. (Ed.). (1994, Spring). Dealing with aggressive and violent students [special issue]. Preventing School Failure, 38(3).

The entire issue of this journal addresses the subject of aggressive and violent students. Articles include addressing school violence as part of the school's educational mission, developing an understanding of the origins of aggression, assessing aggressive behavior, incorporating contextual factors of challenging behaviors into effective intervention plans, effects of challenging behaviors on teacher instructional behavior, and preventing acts of aggression and violence in school-aged children and youth.

Peschel, E., Peschel, R., Howe, C.W., & Howe, J.W. (Eds.). (1992, Summer). Neurobiological disorders in children and adolescents. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

The term "neurobiological disorders" (NBD) is used to describe severe, chronic, "mental" illnesses that have a physical, neurochemical, or neuroanatomical basis. In recent years, the scientific community has documented a number of NBDs that are directly correlated with such disabilities as: autism and pervasive developmental disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette's syndrome, bipolar and major depressive disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia.

The first part of this book includes 13 chapters that describe and document scientific findings regarding the biological basis of NBD. These chapters discuss, one by one, the specific disabilities listed above, which may cause students to manifest emotional or behavioral difficulties. The second part of the book builds upon the scientific foundation laid in the first. The 7 chapters in this part address some of the ways in which the institutions in our society must translate the findings about NBD into reality-based actions to help children and adolescents who are having serious difficulties as a result of their NBD. While this book does not focus upon providing educators with strategies and guidance regarding inclusion of these students in general education classrooms, it will be helpful to those seeking to understand what has been learned scientifically about these disorders and to plan and provide appropriate educational and other services. (138 pages)

Peterson, R.L., & Ishii-Jordan, S. (1994). Multi-cultural issues in the education of students with behavioral disorders. Cambridge, MA: Brookline.

The primary goal of this book is "to examine the effect of racial, ethnic, and cultural factors on the process of identifying and serving students who may have emotional or behavioral disorders in school" (p. xiii). The authors believe that, with a more thorough understanding of the beliefs, practices, and values of diverse cultures and communities, educators can more appropriately intervene when children manifest behavior difficulties. To this end, symptom behaviors of aggression, depression, substance abuse, and juvenile deliquency are examined, as are race and ethnicity (African-American, Hispanic-American, Asian American, Native American, and European-American cultures are specifically addressed).

Also discussed are issues of families, religion, language, gender/sexual issues, immigration, rural vs. suburban settings, and gangs, all of which represent potentially important issues in understanding behavior and behavioral deviance. Ultimately, the book acknowledges the importance of diversity among students with behavioral disorders and stresses the need for educators to consider this very diversity when referring, identifying, planning, and intervening to change student behavior. (291 pages)

Rockwell, S. (1993). Tough to reach, tough to teach: Students with behavior problems. Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.

This book is written by a teacher of students with severe behavioral problems and is intended for fellow teachers. Practical suggestions for managing behaviors are provided, along with vignettes that illustrate the various classroom challenges of working with students who have behavior problems. Individual chapters look at: classroom climate (e.g., setting limits, safety, trust); scheduling; interventions (e.g., reinforcers, dealing with setbacks, touching); instructional focus (e.g., math, reading/science/social studies, spelling, language); dealing with challenges (including profanity); parent/teacher relations (including false accusations of teacher misconduct, lack of parental involvement, general guidelines for parent/teacher meetings); and personal notes. Appendices present a variety of sample worksheets, including lesson plan formats, progress charts, notes to aides or to parents, instructional games, and interventions.

Rosenberg, M.S., Wilson, R., Maheady, L., & Sindelar, P.T. (1991). Educating students with behavior disorders. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

This book is intended to enhance the professional development of preservice and inservice teachers who plan to work with (or who are already working with) students identified as having a behavioral disorder. Under the rubric of BD, various high incidence problem behaviors (hyperactivity, aggression, rule breaking/delinquency, and social withdrawal) and low incidence behaviors (autism, pervasive developmental disorder) are discussed.

Smith, M. (Ed.). (1993). Behavior modification for exceptional children and youth. Boston, MA: Andover Medical Publishers. (Contact Pro-Ed Publishers; ask for Product No. 6940.)

This book is intended to provide readers with a broad knowledge of the principles of behavior and specific knowledge about how to apply those principles to the learning and adjustment needs of children with disabilities of learning and behavior.

Chapter 1 presents a brief history of behavior modification, while Chapter 2 provides an overview of the first step in the behavior modification process -- defining and measuring the behavior targeted for change. Chapter 3 presents detailed guidance regarding functional assessment analysis of behavior. Chapter 4 looks at how to strengthen behavior through positive reinforcement and provides many examples of types of reinforcers and their effects.

Subsequent chapters discuss in practical terms such behavior principles and issues as: extinction of a specific behavior, decreasing behavior through positive reinforcement, stimulus control (how particular stimuli can affect behavior), change through modeling, punishment, self-management, and generalization and maintenance. Final chapters address designing a behavior change plan, implementing the plan, and the ethics of behavior modification.

Topper, K., Williams, W., Leo, K., Hamilton, R., & Fox, T. (1994, January). A positive approach to understanding and addressing challenging behaviors: Supporting educators and families to include students with emotional and behavioral disorders in regular education. Burlington, VT: University Affiliated Program of Vermont. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 378 758)

This manual is intended to help educators and families address students' behavioral problems, so that students with ED/BD can be included successfully in general education classrooms. Chapter 1 is an introduction and uses vignettes to identify supports that students, educators, and families feel they need. Chapter 2 offers case studies on how to devise a support plan for students with challenging behavior. The third chapter focuses on establishing a collaborative team. It provides checklists for educators and families, identifies who should be on the team, and considers how such teams make decisions and solve problems. Chapter 4 considers the importance of getting to know the student and understanding the problem behavior's functions.

The fifth chapter offers suggestions for identifying student supports, including ways to facilitate students supporting each other and the effects of various teaching styles. The selection and teaching of replacement behaviors are discussed in the sixth chapter. Chapter 7 looks at the importance of appropriately responding to challenging behaviors, noting the effects of emotion, school discipline policies, and the need to neutralize a tense situation and refocus students. The final chapter focuses on specific ways to include students with challenging behaviors in regular class activities, monitor progress, and plan transitions. Attached is a list of 72 recommended resources. (ERIC: DB)

Walker, H.M., Colvin, G., & Ramsey, E. (1995). Antisocial behavior in school: Strategies and best practices. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

This book is written to enhance educators' understanding of the nature, origins, and outcomes of antisocial behavior. Chapter 1 describes and defines antisocial behavior and conduct disorder, their causes and origins, and their outcomes. Chapter 2 provides procedural recommendations regarding effective school interventions, including the design and application of comprehensive, coordinated interventions applied early in a child's school career. Chapter 3 presents a conceptual model for the acting-out behavior cycle of antisocial students in the classroom. This cycle involves seven phases: calm, triggers, agitation, acceleration, peak, de-escalation, and recovery. Chapter 4 provides strategies for managing each phase of this cycle. Research findings and best practices in establishing a schoolwide discipline plan are discussed in Chapter 5.

The next several chapters (6-8) examine instructional issues: managing the classroom environment, teaching adaptive behavior patterns, and managing behavior on the playground. Chapters 9 and 10 address social skills: their importance, assessment, how to teach them, and generalization. Parent involvement in the schooling of antisocial students is the subject of Chapter 11. Chapter 12 presents seven case study applications of best practices with antisocial students. The final chapter looks at proactive strategies for dealing with school violence, gangs, and safety. (477 pages)

Wolfgang, C.H. (1995). Solving discipline problems: Methods and models for today's teachers (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

This book begins by explaining in detail the Teacher Behavior Continuum (TBC), the general categories of discipline techniques used by a teacher, which are placed along a continuum from minimum to maximum use of power. Later chapters explore various discipline models within the context of TBC. The discipline models discussed, each in a separate chapter, are: the Rogerian (emotionally supportive) model; the transactional analysis (TA) model; the social discipline model of Rudolf Dreikurs (Adlerian Theory); Glasser's Reality Therapy and Control Therapy; the Judicious Discipline model; the Behavior Analysis model; the Positive Discipline model; Assertive Discipline; the Dobson Love and Punishment model; and managing student violent assaults and breaking up fights. The strengths and limitations of each model are then examined to permit readers to reflect upon the models and their suggested methods.

The final chapter in the book discusses discipline and teaching as a developmental process and shows how beginning teachers might use one or two of the discipline models and their techniques, as well as how experienced teachers may create their own models by picking and choosing various techniques from among the models.

Wong, K.L.H., Kauffman, J.M., & Lloyd, J.W. (1991, November). Choices for integration: Selecting teachers for mainstreamed students with emotional or behavioral disorders. Intervention in School and Clinic, 27(2), 108-115.

Guidelines are offered for making mainstreaming placement decisions for students with emotional or behavioral disorders. Characteristics of effective teachers of mainstreamed students are listed, and a classroom observation form and student/teacher match form are presented for use by the special education teacher in determining optimal mainstream placement. (ERIC: JDD)

Workman, E.A., & Katz, A.M. (1995). Teaching behavioral self-control to students (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

This book is about how teachers, counselors, and parents can teach children the techniques of behavioral self-control in order to improve their behavior and performance at school and at home. There are five types of behavioral self-control (BSC) that students can be taught to use: self-assessment, self-monitoring, self-reinforcement, self-guidance, and self-modeling. The book is organized around these five types of BSC and discusses why it is important to teach BSC and the principles and techniques associated with BSC. Four chapters are devoted to explaining in detail what each type of BSC is and how to teach children to use the technique to control their own behavior.

Zionts, P. (1996). Teaching disturbed and disturbing students: An integrative approach (2nd ed). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. (Product No. 6959)

The stated purpose of this book is to prepare and train educators who will be teaching students who have emotional or behavioral problems. The book examines intervention through case studies, activities, and examples, contains a great deal of information drawn from research and theory, with practical application of this information threaded throughout, and is divided into three units.

Unit 1 looks at administrative influences that must be considered when educating students with ED/BD. Conditions which may encourage or impede appropriate behavior are examined in Chapter 1, including school, teacher, and parent reactions to maladaptive behavior. Chapter 2 looks at aspects that are crucial to teaching students with ED/BD, particularly having a teaching philosophy and specific competencies. Chapter 3 presents information on the preassessment, referral, assessment, and placement procedures integral to special education. Chapters 4 and 5 look closely at the classroom environment.

Unit 2 examines the issue of moral development, including the possibility of teaching ED/BD students how to think about various conflicts and choose among the behavioral alternatives available, rather than simply responding to a situation. Theories of moral development are presented, and their application in the classroom is then discussed.

Unit 3 focuses upon rational-emotive therapy (RET) in the classroom with students above the fourth grade level. These students are felt to be in a position to solve their own conflicts through using RET. Specific methods are given for applying RET as a classroom intervention.

Council for Exceptional Children's Mini-Library on Behavioral Disorders

The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) offers a 1991 mini-library on behavioral disorders. Each book -- there are 9 -- is brief and practitioner-oriented. The books may be purchased from CEC at the address listed under "List of Publishers" or through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service. Each book's ED number is listed alongside its title. The following books are available:

Working with behavioral disorders (the entire library of 9 volumes in a box)

Teaching students with behavioral disorders: Basic questions and answers (37 pages) (ED 333 659)

Behaviorally disordered? Assessment for identification and instruction (37 pages) (ED 333 660)

Conduct disorders and social maladjustments: Policies, politics, and programming (27 pages) (ED 333 661)

Social skills for students with autism (23 pages) (ED 333 655)

Preparing to integrate students with behavioral disorders (35 pages) (ED 333 658)

Teaching young children with behavioral disorders (25 pages) (ED 333 657)

Reducing undesirable behaviors (33 pages) (ED 333 656)

Moving on: Transitions for youth with behavioral disorders (52 pages) (ED 333 653)

Additional Print Resources

Hamilton, R., Welkowitz, J., Mandeville, S., Prue, J., & Fox, T. (1994). Prevention, teaching, and responding: A planning team process for supporting students with emotional and behavioral difficulties in regular education. Burlington, VT: University Affiliated Program of Vermont.

Koegel, L.K., Koegel, R.L., & Dunlap, G. (Eds.). (1996). Community, school, family, and social inclusion through positive behavioral support. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

NASP Communique. A newsletter published eight times a year by the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP), often including pullout handouts about specific emotional or behavioral problems. Available from NASP. (See List of Publishers.)

Paul, J.L., & Epanchin, B.C. (1991). Educating emotionally disturbed children and youth: Theories and practices for teachers (2nd ed.). New York: Merrill. (ISBN # 0675212111)

Positive Practices. A quarterly publication dedicated to advancing positive practices in the field of challenging behavior. Available from the Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis. (See List of Publishers.)

Reichle, J., & Wacker, D.P. (Eds.). (1993). Communicative alternatives to challenging behavior: Integrating functional assessment and intervention strategies. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Sherman, R., Shumsky, A., & Rountree, Y.B. (1994). Enlarging the therapeutic circle: The therapist's guide to collaborative therapy with families and schools. New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Walker, H.M., & Walker, J.E. (1991). Coping with noncompliance in the classroom: A positive approach for teachers. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. (Product No. 1947)


Numerous videos are available on ED/BD and may help educators understand the needs and concerns of individuals who have these disorders, what the disorders involve, and effective means of addressing problematic behaviors and other issues that may arise inside or outside of the classroom. Availability information on the programs is given in their citation; the addresses and telephone numbers of distributors are provided under "List of Publishers."

Behavior Intervention Strategies

An in-depth look at practical strategies that can help regular and special classroom teachers change the behavior of their students. (Available from: National Training Network. Cost: $595.)

Discipline of Handicapped Students Video, 38 minutes

A legal challenges in special education tape by Reed Martin, J.D. (Available from: Learning Disabilities Association. Cost: $10 for rental.)

Positive Approaches to Solving Behavior Challenges

This 8-module video training package is designed to teach viewers a person-centered model for solving behavior challenges with nonadversive strategies. (Available from: Institute on Applied Behavior Analysis. Cost: Rental -- $200; Purchase -- $1250.)

Positive Behavioral Support: Get a Life! Video, 40 minutes

Describes positive behavioral support, its seven components, and the impact this approach made on one family. (Available from: Beach Center on Families and Disability. Cost: $15.00.)

Self-Management Training Program:

Teaching Individuals with Developmental Disabilities to Manage Their Disruptive Behavior
Video, 27 minutes; includes a Training Manual

Teaches how to teach those with developmental disabilities the appropriate and necessary behavioral skills used in daily life. Illustrates sessions where developmentally delayed individuals learn coping skills successfully. (Available from: Research Press. Order Numbers: Purchase: 2425; Rental: 2430; Purchase of additional training manual: 2431. Cost: Purchase -- $365 + shipping; additional training manual; Rental -- $55 for 3 days + shipping.)

Suicide Prevention: The Classroom Teacher's Role
Video, 25 minutes

Focuses on factors that contribute to adolescent suicide, specific warning signals that a teacher should be sensitive to, and procedures for student referral. (Available from: Bureau for At Risk Youth. Cost: $59.95.)

List of Publishers

Allyn and Bacon
Ordering Processing Center
P.O. Box 11071 Des Moines, IA 50336-1071
Telephone: 1-800-947-7700

Beach Center on Families and Disability
3111 Haworth Hall The University of Kansas
Lawrence, KS 66045 Telephone: (913) 864-7600

Brookline Books
P.O. Box 1047 Cambridge, MA 02238

ITP Distribution Center Customer Service
7625 Empire Drive Florence, KY 41042
Telephone: 1-800-842-3636

19 Union Square West New York, NY 10003
Telephone: 1-800-825-3089

Bureau for At Risk Youth
645 New York Avenue Huntington, NY 11743
Telephone: 1-800-999-6884

Council for Exceptional Children
1920 Association Drive Reston, VA 22091
Telephone: 1-800-CEC-READ

Educators Publishing Service
31 Smith Place Cambridge, MA 02138-1000
Telephone: 1-800-225-5750

Falmer Press: Contact: Taylor and Francis
1900 Frost Road Suite 101 Bristol, PA 19007-1598
Telephone: 1-800-821-8312

Films for the Humanities and Sciences
P.O. Box 2053 Princeton, NJ 08543-2053
Telephone: 1-800-257-5126; (609) 275-1400

Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis
6169 St. Andrews Road, #123 Columbia, SC 29212-3146 Telephone: 1-800-457-5575; (803) 731-8597

350 Sansome Street San Francisco, CA 94104
Telephone: (415) 433-1767

Learning Disabilities Association
4156 Library Road Pittsburgh, PA 15234
Telephone: (412) 341-1515

Lee Canter and Associates: Contact:
Childswork/Childsplay Center for Applied Psychology P.O. Box 61586 King of Prussia, PA 19406 Telephone: 1-800-962-1141

Merrill, see Allyn and Bacon, above.

N.A.K. Production Associates
4304 East West Highway Bethesda, MD 20814
Telephone: (301) 654-4777

National Association of School Psychologists
4340 East West Highway Suite 402 Bethesda, MD 20814

National Training Network
2007 Yanceyville Street Suite 213 Greensboro, NC 27405 Telephone: 1-800-728-2916

PACER Center
4826 Chicago Avenue South Minneapolis, MN 55417
Telephone: Outside of MN, (612) 827-2966; in MN, 1-800-537-2237

Parker Publishers

For individuals ordering a resource, contact Allyn and Bacon, above. For organizations ordering a resource, contact: Prentice Hall
200 Old Tappan Road Old Tappan, NJ 07675
Telephone: 1-800-223-1360

Paul H. Brookes Publishing
P.O. Box 10624 Baltimore, MD 21285-0624
Telephone: 1-800-638-3775

Plenum Publishing
233 Spring Street New York, NY 10013
Telephone: 1-800-221-9369

8700 Shoal Creek Boulevard Austin, TX 78757
Telephone: (512) 451-3246

Research Press
Dept. G, Box 9177 Champaign, IL 61826
Telephone: (217) 352-3273

Singular Publishing Group
4284 41st Street San Diego, CA 92105
Telephone: (619) 521-8000 or 1-800-521-8545

Teachers College Press
P.O. Box 20 Williston, VT 05495 Telephone: 1-800-575-6566

University Affiliated Program of Vermont: Contact:
National Clearinghouse of Rehabilitation Training Materials Oklahoma State University 816 W. 6th Street Stillwater, OK 74078 Telephone: 1-800-223-5219; (405) 624-7650

Western Regional Resource Center, Contact the National Clearinghouse of Rehabilitation Training Materials, at the address immediately above.

Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction
Publication Sales
P.O. Box 7841 Madison, WI 53707-7841
Telephone: 1-800-243-8782

Thanks to the ERIC Clearinghouse
NICHCY would like to express its deep appreciation to the ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education, at the Council for Exceptional Children. The ERIC Clearinghouse has an extensive, annotated listing of videos currently available on disabilities and disability-related issues and has generously permitted NICHCY to reproduce these descriptions of videos addressing ED/BD.

This information is copyright free. Readers are encouraged to copy and share it, but please credit the National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY). NICHCY Resource Lists are published several times a year in response to questions from individuals and organizations that contact us. We encourage you to share your ideas and feedback with us!

Project Director: Suzanne Ripley
Editor/Compiler: Lisa Küpper
Associate Editor: Mary Kate Conroy
NICHCY thanks Ms. Marie Roane, our Project Officer at the Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education, for her time in reviewing this bibliography. We would also like to extend a heartfelt thank you to the ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education, for the information on videos and journal articles they generously compiled and shared with us. Special thanks go to Janet Drill, Barbara Sorenson, and Bernadette Knoblaugh, our ERIC friends and colleagues. We also wish to thank Judith S. Brand, fourth grade general educator, and Glenda Charles-Pierre, special education resource teacher, at the Science Focus School in Arlington, Virginia. Their review of this bibliography was very helpful and much appreciated. And finally, NICHCY would like to thank Brenda K. Souto, of the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI), in Arlington, Virginia, for her review of this bibliography and her excellent suggestions regarding its content.
Publication of this document is made possible through a Cooperative Agreement between the Academy for Educational Development and the Office of Special Education Programs of the U.S. Department of Education. The contents of this document do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of Education, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. NICHCY P.O. Box 1492 Washington, DC 20013 (800) 695-0285 · v/tty (202) 884-8441 · fax
email: web:
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